Design of Employee Handbooks/
Contracts of Employment
Most people want a good relationship with their employer. They want to come to work, do their job within the boundaries of the company, get paid and go home. But how do they know what the boundaries are if you haven’t told them what is acceptable and what isn’t?
Over 20 years experience
Does your small business need an employee handbook?
To many business owners, an employee handbook may sound like the kind of bureaucratic red tape that only large organisations need to worry about. And some may not know what it is or even have thought about it. But, in fact, once you start employing more than a handful of employees, a handbook can be very valuable.
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About an Employee Handbook
An employee handbook, also sometimes called an employee manual or a policies and procedures manual, is a document that tells your staff members what to expect when they work for you.
Although it often deals with practical details like vacation time, benefits, disciplinary procedures and so on, it can also be a great place to introduce your employees to the company in other ways. You can explain your company’s values and the kind of workplace you have in it. You can let employees know who they can contact if they have questions or problems. There’s a lot more you can cover, too.
There’s no set format for writing an employee handbook. This is your document, and you can choose how you want to communicate with your employees—in fact, the tone and format you use can themselves communicate something about your company’s values. The handbook can be playful or formal, contemporary or traditional, graphic-laden or text-heavy.
Traditionally, it was a printed book, and many companies still use that format. But you can also make it available in digital form, perhaps accessible on a company intranet or shared file server. That’s particularly useful if your employees often travel or work remotely—then they can access it from anywhere.
The basic purpose of an employee handbook is to set expectations. It lets your employees know what kinds of benefits and support they can expect from you, and also what standards or work and behaviour you expect from them in return. It provides clarity on both sides.
When you’re just starting out and only have one or two members of staff, you may not need an employee handbook yet—informal communication may work just fine at that scale. But as you start to expand, you’ll really start to see the benefits of having that clear documentation in place.
If you’re not convinced about the need for a manual or handbook in your business, this section should help you to discover some of the benefits.
Create Better Workplace Policies
The main point of an employee handbook is to document everything a staff member needs to know to do their job. But sometimes, the very act of documenting all this stuff will help you to come up with better ways of doing things.
You might be writing up the section on attendance policies, for example, when you realize that for some job functions, it may not matter if someone arrives late, as long as they get the work done (while for others, clocking on at a particular time may be very important). So you come up with a more flexible formula than the one you were using before.
Help New Employees Get Up to Speed
You probably know what it’s like to start a new job. So many new faces, an unfamiliar office, different processes and jargon from the ones you’ve been used to at your old job. And you usually have a thousand questions to ask, and you feel bad about asking them because everyone around seems so busy with their own work.
A well-written employee handbook is perfect for helping new employees find their feet more quickly. While they may not read the whole book cover to cover, they can use it as a quick reference to get lots of their questions answered easily.
Avoid Constant Questions Over Policies
If you don’t have an employee handbook, expect constant questions—not just from new employees, but also from existing ones. How many holidays days do we get a year? Which Bank Holidays holiday’s do we get paid for? What are the rules on conflicts of interest or working in other places?
There are plenty of things in the workplace that can cause confusion, and you may end up spending a lot of time fielding the same questions—or, worse, having employees following the wrong policies because they didn’t ask.
Have Everything in One Place
Sometimes, companies do have their policies documented, but in a fragmented way. Some things are recorded on the intranet, but in different places, while others were only communicated by email. Whenever employees need to look something up, they have to embark on an elaborate treasure hunt.
This can be irritating to your staff, and it’s clearly not an efficient way of working. An employee handbook gathers everything together into one place, so that it’s quick and easy to find information.
Communicate Your Values
While it’s easy to get bogged down in the nitty gritty of policies and procedures, an employee handbook is also your chance to tell your company’s story and get your employees aligned around its values. Why does your company exist? What are you all working towards? What’s your position on things like diversity and social responsibility? This can be a great way to get your employees motivated and energized and to make sure everyone’s on the same page about the firm’s values.
Avoid Legal Challenges
The basic purpose of the employee handbook is to set clear expectations on both sides. That clarity can also give you legal protection.
For example, let’s say that you have to dismiss one of your employees for poor attendance or for harassing a colleague. The employee could try to sue you for unfair dismissal, claiming that it was never made clear to them that those things were grounds for being fired. If you’ve set out those policies in your handbook and documented the fact that all employees are given copies of it, then you have a stronger defence.
As I mentioned earlier, there’s no required format for how to write an employee handbook, but there are some common sections that many companies and small businesses include. Keep in mind that you can always add to this or customise the document to cover what’s important for your business.
Employee handbooks often start with a general introduction and overview of the company. You could include a brief history of the business, a timeline of key events, and a statement of important values and goals.
Your employees spend a lot of their time at work, and their safety is the most important thing. This section tells people what to do in the event of an emergency or accident at work, how to access first aid, fire safety procedures, and so on.
Diversity and Equality Statement
This is your opportunity to show your commitment to equal opportunity in the workplace and to state that you won’t tolerate discrimination or harassment based on age, race, religion, sex or sexual orientation, disability, etc.
You can also give more details on what constitutes discrimination and harassment, so that people are clear on what’s being covered, and give employees a procedure they can follow if they believe they are being harassed or discriminated against in the workplace.
Pay and Benefits
Give the details of when and how employees can expect to be paid, how tax and other deductions will be taken out, and whether they’ll be eligible for overtime (if some employees do get paid overtime and others don’t, or if some are full-time and others part-time, make those classifications very clear). You can also include details of other types of compensation such as bonuses and commission payments if applicable.
Then detail any company benefits you offer, such as health insurance, pensions, and so on. You can also include details of paid leave policies here, such as parental leave, sick leave, holiday pay, and so on.
Code of Conduct
What standards do you expect from your employees? This is where you can specify everything from a dress code to the expected level of attendance and punctuality. You could also deal with things like use of the internet and social media, if you want to place restrictions on that.
It’s up to you, though, how much detail you go into. Some companies prefer not to provide a punitive-sounding list of rules here, instead giving general guidelines and leaving employees to use their discretion. You’ll see some examples later on. There may still be some things that you need to be strict and clear about with your small business employee handbook, however, such as the need to keep company and client data confidential.
Discipline and Termination
Give employees a clear idea of what constitutes grounds for disciplinary action and what kind of action will be taken. Also let them know what they can do if they feel they’ve been treated unfairly. Then you can set out the policy of what happens in the event of termination.
Keep in mind that any disciplinary procedures you lay out in this section may be binding, so be careful about committing yourself to anything you don’t want to follow in every single case. For example, if you state in the handbook that you give a series of verbal and written warnings for disciplinary issues, you may get in trouble if you later fire an employee without having given all those warnings.
Acknowledgement of Receipt
It’s important to document the fact that each employee was given a copy of the handbook. So have every employee sign an acknowledgement of receipt of the handbook—this is usually included at the end of the book, for the employee to sign and detach, so that you can keep the copy in his or her personnel file. In case there’s any dispute later, this stops people from claiming they weren’t aware of the policies.
When you have a lawyer review your employee handbook, they may advise you to include extra wording, stating, for example, that the handbook is a guide, not a contract, and that future employment is not guaranteed. The wording will depend on where you’re based and your particular situation, so be sure to get individual legal advice.
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